By Ervand Abrahamian
In a reappraisal of Iran's glossy heritage, Ervand Abrahamian strains its nerve-racking trip around the 20th century, during the discovery of oil, imperial interventions, the rule of thumb of the Pahlavis and, in 1979, revolution and the start of the Islamic Republic. within the intervening years, the rustic has skilled a sour struggle with Iraq, the transformation of society less than the clergy and, extra lately, the growth of the nation and the fight for energy among the previous elites, the intelligentsia and the economic heart category. the writer is a compassionate expositor. whereas he adroitly negotiates the twists and turns of the country's neighborhood and foreign politics, on the middle of his publication are the folk of Iran. it truly is to them and their resilience that this e-book is devoted, as Iran emerges at the start of the twenty-first century as probably the most strong states within the center East.
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Additional resources for A History of Modern Iran
48 In other words, these sharecroppers – unlike their counterparts in other parts of the world – enjoyed some semblance of security. Peasants who supplied their own seed and oxen received as much as three-fifths of the harvest. In villages dependent on qanats (underground canals), landlords invariably took the fifth allocated for irrigated water. 24 A History of Modern Iran The relationship between landlords and peasants was invariably influenced by the availability of labor. In the late nineteenth century, especially after the catastrophic 1870 famine, peasants could threaten to move to underpopulated regions since they, unlike medieval European serfs, were not legally bound to the land.
Field, Contribution to the Anthropology of Iran (Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1939); and S. I. Bruk, “The Ethnic Composition of the Countries of Western Asia,” Central Asian Review, Vol. 7, No. 4 (1960), pp. 417–20. “Royal despots”: state and society under the Qajars 19 both because they had their own holy books and because they were recognized as such in the Koran and the shari’a. They were permitted to have their own leaders and organizations, their own schools and tax levies, and their own laws and places of worship.
Although most tribes were either nomadic or semi-nomadic, some were fully settled. For example, the Kurds were mostly settled farmers in the valleys of Kermanshah and western Azerbaijan. Similarly, the Arabs were mostly villagers living along the Persian Gulf and in the southern province of Arabestan. The Qajars themselves had experienced the typical passage into urban life outlined by the classical scholar ibn Khaldun. Having established their dynasty, they had settled in the capital and in due course merged into the urban population.
A History of Modern Iran by Ervand Abrahamian